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10.5: Erosion and Deposition by Gravity

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Lesson 10.5: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Gravity pulls soil and rocks downhill.

_____ 2. Mass movement is always a very slow process.

_____ 3. A landslide may carry away an entire village.

_____ 4. Mudslides occur where soil consists mostly of sand.

_____ 5. Slump occurs more slowly that creep.

_____ 6. Slump is more destructive than a landslide.

_____ 7. Soil is lifted up when the ground freezes.

_____ 8. An earthquake is a type of mass movement.

_____ 9. Trees tilting downhill are evidence for slump.

_____ 10. During creep, soil moves downhill when it thaws.

Lesson 10.5: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read this passage based on the text and answer the questions that follow.

Landslides and Mudslides

Landslides and mudslides are the most destructive types of mass movement. They occur when gravity suddenly pulls soil, rocks, or mud down a cliff or hillside. The sediments may bury or carry away entire villages.

A landslide happens when a large amount of soil and loose rocks suddenly falls downhill because of gravity. If a landslide falls into the ocean, it may cause a huge wave called a tsunami. Landslides are often triggered by the ground shaking of an earthquake. A landslide is more likely if the soil has become wet from heavy rains. Wet soil is slippery and heavy.

A mudslide is the sudden flow of mud downhill because of gravity. Mudslides occur where the soil consists mostly of clay. Like landslides, mudslides are more likely following an earthquake and when the soil is wet. Wet clay forms very slippery mud that easily slides downhill.


  1. What is a landslide?
  2. Describe conditions that may lead to a landslide.
  3. How is a mudslide like a landslide? How is it different?

Lesson 10.5: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Gravity causes erosion by all of the following except
    1. glaciers.
    2. moving air.
    3. flowing water.
    4. mass movement.
  2. Factors that increase the risk of landslides include
    1. dry soils.
    2. lack of rain.
    3. earthquakes.
    4. two of the above
  3. Mass movement can occur
    1. suddenly.
    2. very slowly.
    3. only on sloping land.
    4. all of the above
  4. Slump may be caused by
    1. wet clay.
    2. water erosion.
    3. scars on a hillside.
    4. two of the above
  5. Creep usually takes place where the ground
    1. is level.
    2. is prevented from moving.
    3. freezes and thaws frequently.
    4. is always saturated with water.
  6. Evidence that creep has occurred include
    1. cracked pavement.
    2. crescent-shaped holes.
    3. huge piles of mud.
    4. large chunks of rock.

Lesson 10.5: Matching

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match each definition with the correct term.


_____ 1. sudden movement of a large block of rock and soil down a slope

_____ 2. force that indirectly causes erosion by moving water or ice

_____ 3. sudden movement of a large amount of soil and loose rocks down a slope

_____ 4. gradual movement of rock and soil down a hillside

_____ 5. any type of erosion and deposition caused directly by gravity

_____ 6. sudden flow of a large amount of wet, slippery clay down a slope


a. creep

b. landslide

c. mass movement

d. mudslide

e. slump

f. gravity

Lesson 10.5: Fill in the Blank

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

  1. The most destructive types of mass movement are landslides and __________.
  2. If a landslide flows into the ocean, it may cause a(n) __________.
  3. Mudslides occur where the soil consists mostly of __________.
  4. The mass movement called __________ causes fence posts to tilt downhill.
  5. The type of mass movement that occurs very slowly is __________.

Lesson 10.5: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Contrast landslides and slump. Why do you think slump is less destructive than a landslide?

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