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4.4: Metamorphic Rocks

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Lesson 4.4: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. When a rock undergoes metamorphism, it becomes an entirely new type of rock.

_____ 2. During metamorphism, ions may move and new minerals may form.

_____ 3. There are two types of metamorphism.

_____ 4. Contact metamorphism causes rock to melt and form magma.

_____ 5. The most commonly used metamorphic rocks are slate and gneiss.

_____ 6. Quartzite is a relatively soft metamorphic rock.

_____ 7. Gneiss forms by contact metamorphism.

_____ 8. Schist is sometimes used as a landscaping material.

_____ 9. In the 1500s, Michelangelo carved statues from marble.

_____ 10. Metamorphic rocks cannot undergo further metamorphism and change to different types of rocks.

Lesson 4.4: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read this passage based on the text and answer the questions that follow.


Metamorphic rocks start off as some kind of existing rock. The starting rock may be igneous rock, sedimentary rock, or even another metamorphic rock. Heat and/or pressure then change the rock’s physical or chemical makeup. This is called metamorphism.

Chemical changes during metamorphism occur when ions move and new minerals form. The new minerals are more stable in the new environment. A physical change that may occur during metamorphism is foliation. Foliation is the formation of alternating bands of crystals of different colors. It is caused by extreme pressure being applied to rock from just one direction. If pressure is exerted from all directions, foliation usually does not occur.

There are two main types of metamorphism: contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism.

Contact metamorphism occurs when magma contacts a rock and changes it by extreme heat. Regional metamorphism occurs when great masses of rock are exposed to pressure from rock and sediment layers on top of them or from other geological processes.


  1. What is metamorphism?
  2. How do rocks change chemically during metamorphism?
  3. Describe a physical change that may occur during metamorphism.
  4. Distinguish between contact and regional metamorphism.

Lesson 4.4: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. During metamorphism, rocks may change
    1. chemically.
    2. physically.
    3. permanently.
    4. two of the above
  2. Metamorphism begins with
    1. magma.
    2. sediments.
    3. lava.
    4. rock.
  3. What type of change in rock is foliation?
    1. physical change
    2. chemical change
    3. mineral change
    4. two of the above
  4. A metamorphic rock may undergo foliation when pressure is
    1. exerted from just one direction.
    2. exerted from all directions.
    3. relatively weak.
    4. absent.
  5. Slate is a metamorphic rock that is used for
    1. building.
    2. landscaping.
    3. statues.
    4. two of the above
  6. Which of the following types of rocks can undergo metamorphism?
    1. sedimentary rock
    2. igneous rock
    3. metamorphic rock
    4. all of the above
  7. All of the following are metamorphic rocks except
    1. schist.
    2. quartzite.
    3. gneiss.
    4. granite.

Lesson 4.4: Matching

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match each definition with the correct term.


_____ 1. type of metamorphism in which magma contacts a rock and changes it by extreme heat

_____ 2. Any rock formed by extreme heat and pressure

_____ 3. metamorphic rock with alternating bands of light and dark crystals

_____ 4. type of metamorphism in which great masses of rock are exposed to extreme pressure

_____ 5. formation of layers in some metamorphic rock

_____ 6. metamorphic rock that is crushed and used to build railroad tracks

_____ 7. metamorphic rock that is used to make statues


a. regional metamorphism

b. metamorphic rock

c. contact metamorphism

d. hornfels

e. foliation

f. marble

g. quartzite

Lesson 4.4: Fill in the Blank

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

  1. Metamorphism changes rocks by extreme heat and/or __________.
  2. Hornfels is a rock that is formed by __________ metamorphism.
  3. Regional metamorphic rocks often display layering called __________.
  4. The minerals in hornfels separate from one another by __________.
  5. After metamorphism occurs, the minerals in a rock are more __________.
  6. Schist is a rock that is formed by __________ metamorphism.
  7. The rocky peak named the Matterhorn consists of the metamorphic rock called __________.

Lesson 4.4: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Both igneous and sedimentary rocks may form on Earth’s surface. Explain why metamorphic rocks can form only below Earth’s surface.

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