• Biotechnology is the use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes.
  • Two commonly used techniques are gene cloning and the polymerase chain reaction.
  • Gene cloning involves four steps: isolation, ligation, transformation, and selection.
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction involves three steps: denaturing, annealing, and extension.
  • The three steps are repeated many times in a cycle to make large quantities of the gene.
  • The DNA that results is called recombinant DNA.
  • Changing an organism in this way is also called genetic engineering.
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