• Photosynthesis is a complex set of chemical reactions, named the Calvin cycle.
  • The first stage transforms light energy into chemical energy, stored to this point in molecules of ATP and NADPH.
  • The second stage of photosynthesis can proceed without light, so its steps are sometimes called “light-independent” or “dark” reactions (though the term ‘‘dark’’ reactions can be misleading).
  • Many biologists honor the scientist, Melvin Calvin, who won a 1961 Nobel Prize for working out this complex process.
Select from the frequently asked questions below