• Chromosomes are the form of the genetic material of a cell during cell division.
  • Chromosomes form after DNA replicates; prior to replication, DNA exists as chromatin.
  • Human cells normally have two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent.
  • There are 23 chromosomes in each set, for a total of 46 chromosomes per cell.
  • Each chromosome in one set is matched by a chromosome of the same type in the other set.
  • Most genes contain the instructions for a single protein.
  • There may be hundreds or even thousands of genes on a single chromosome.
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