• Major changes in the human population first began during the 1700s in Europe and North America.
  • First death rates fell, followed somewhat later by birth rates.
  • The transition can be summarized in the following four stages.
  • Stage 1: High birth and death rates lead to slow population growth.
  • Stage 2: The death rate falls but the birth rate remains high, leading to faster growth.Stage 3: The birth rate starts to fall, so population growth starts to slow.Stage 4: Birth rate reaches the same low level as the death rate, and population growth slows to zero.
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