• Gene expression is regulated to ensure that the correct proteins are made when and where they are needed.
  • Regulation may occur at any point in the expression of a gene, from the start of transcription to the processing of a protein after translation.
  • Gene transcription is controlled by regulatory proteins that bind to regulatory elements on DNA.
  • Some human genes are controlled by many activators and repressors working together.
  • A mutation in a cis-regulatory region, such as the promoter, can greatly affect the proper expression.
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