Flexi Says: Several advances in science and technology led to lower death rates in 18th century Europe and North America:
New scientific knowledge of the causes of disease led to improved water supplies, sewers, and personal hygiene. Better farming techniques and machines increased the food supply. The Industrial Revolution of the 1800s led to new sources of energy, such as coal and electricity. This increased the efficiency of the new agricultural machines. It also led to train transport, which improved the distribution of food. For all these reasons, death rates fell, especially in children. This allowed many more children to survive to adulthood, so birth rates increased. As the gap between birth and death rates widened, the human population grew faster.