Flexi Says: Mendel’s first law states that there are two alleles controlling a given characteristic, one of which dominates the other, and these alleles separate and go to different gametes when a parent reproduces. His second law states that genes controlling different characteristics are inherited independently of each other. Genes are located on chromosomes, and the genes encode the traits Mendel studied. Each gene has multiple alleles, and these alleles are Mendel’s factors. As chromosomes segregate during meiosis, alleles and genes end up in unique combinations within gametes.