• Mutations are essential for evolution to occur.
  • Two major categories of mutations are germline mutations and somatic mutations.
  • Mutations may change the structure of a chromosome or just change a single nucleotide.
  • A point mutation can be silent, missense, or nonsense mutations.
  • A frameshift mutation is a deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides that changes the reading frame of the base sequence.
  • The effects of point mutations depend on how they change the genetic code.
  • The cause of albinism is a mutation in a gene for melanin.
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