Flexi Says: Natural selection explains how organisms in a population develop traits that allow them to survive and reproduce. Natural selection means that traits that offer an advantage will most likely be passed on to offspring; individuals with those traits have a better chance of surviving. Evolution occurs by natural selection. Take the giant tortoises on the Galápagos Islands as an example. If a short-necked tortoise lives on an island with fruit located at a high level, will the short-necked tortoise survive? No, it will not, because it will not be able to reach the food it needs to survive. If all of the short necked tortoises die, and the long-necked tortoises survive, then, over time, only the long-necked trait will be passed down to offspring. All of the tortoises with long-necks will be "naturally selected" to survive.