• Active transport is the energy-requiring process of pumping molecules and ions across membranes "uphill" - against a concentration gradient.
  • To move these molecules against their concentration gradient, a carrier protein is needed.
  • The sodium-potassium pump is an active transport pump that exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions.
  • The pump is found in the plasma membrane of almost every human cell and is common to all cellular life.
  • It helps maintain cell potential and regulates cellular volume.
  • It is also important for the conduction of electrical impulses along nerve cells.
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