• Vertebrates are a subphylum of the phylum Chordata.
  • The vertebrate endoskeleton includes a vertebral column, cranium, limbs, and limb girdles.
  • Vertebrates have a closed circulatory system with a heart.
  • The immune system is the organ system that defends the body from pathogens and other causes of disease.
  • The nervous system consists of a brain in the head region and a long spinal cord that runs from the brain to the tail end of the backbone.
  • The heart is divided into chambers that work together to pump blood.
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