• Vertebrates reproduce sexually, and almost all have separate male and female sexes.
  • Aquatic species generally have external fertilization, whereas terrestrial species usually have internal fertilization.
  • Vertebrates have one of three reproductive strategies, known as ovipary, ovoviviparies, or vivipary.
  • The mother provides no nourishment to the developing embryo inside the egg.
  • Birth may be followed by a period of parental care of the offspring.
  • This reproductive strategy occurs in almost all mammals.
  • The development of an embryo inside an egg within the mother’s body until it hatches.
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