• At equilibrium the  for a reversible reaction is equal to zero.
  • The natural logarithm of a number less than one is negative and so the sign of is positive.
  • The large positive free energy change leads to a value that is extremely small.
  • Both lead to the conclusion that the reactants are highly favored and very few product molecules are present at equilibrium.
  • The solubility product constant  of lead(II) iodide is 1.4 × 10-8 at 25°C.
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