• When identical spheres are stacked, each successive layer fits into the small spaces where different spheres come together.
  • Closest packing is the most efficient arrangement of spheres.
  • Atoms of a metal crystal are arranged in similar patterns, called close-packed structures.
  • Pure metals naturally adopt one of these three closest packing arrangements.
  • The coordination number of each atom in the face-centered cubic structure is 12.
  • The hexagonal close- packed (hcp) structure also has acoordination number of 12.
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