• Covalent bonds form when electrons in two atoms form overlapping orbitals.
  • A lone pair is a pair of electrons in a Lewis electron-dot structure that is not shared between atoms.
  • The oxygen atom in the water molecule shown below has two lone pair sets of electrons.
  • The hydrogen atom with its single electron will form a covalent bond with the oxygen atom where it has a single electron.
  • Each hydrogen atom follows the octet rule with one bonding pair.
  • The resulting Lewis electron dot structure for water is:
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