• Van der Waals forces are the weakest intermolecular force and consist of dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces.
  • Dispersion forces are strongest for iodine molecules because they have the greatest number of electrons.
  • The relatively stronger forces result in melting and boiling points which are the highest of the halogen group.
  • These forces are strong enough to hold iodine molecules close together in the solid state at room temperature.
  • Bromine, chlorine, and fluorine are gases, whose molecules are much further apart from one another.
  • Interactions between non-polar molecules depend on the degree of electron fluctuation.
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