Flexi Says: Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) are the best known — and arguably the most misunderstood — archaic humans. They had a stocky body and typical archaic features of the head. They also had a large brain. Neanderthals were relatively advanced technologically and culturally, and lived in Europe and Asia from about half a million years ago to about 30 thousand years ago. DNA evidence shows that they most likely evolved from Homo heidelbergernsis and then interbred with modern Homo sapiens, as well as other archaic humans, before going extinct or being absorbed into Homo sapiens populations.