• The seasons are caused by the 23.5° tilt of Earth’s axis.
  • One hemisphere points more directly toward the Sun than the other hemisphere.
  • At equinox, the Sun is directly over the Equator.
  • Summer solstice is June 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • At winter solstice, the sun is closest to the South Pole (around December 22) The time is 9:00 p.m. Universal Time, at Greenwich, England, for summer solstice.
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