• Bacteria can be classified by their shape, including bacilli (rods), cocci (spheres), and spirilli (spirals) The structure of a bacterial cell is distinctive from a eukaryotic cell because of features such as an outer cell wall, the circular DNA of the nucleoid, and the lack of membrane-bound organelles.
  • Bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan.
  • The cell wall is so important that some antibiotics, such as penicillin, kill bacteria.
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