• Birds reproduce sexually and have separate sexes and internal fertilization.
  • Males and females must mate for fertilization to occur.
  • Mating is generally preceded by courtship.
  • In most species, parents also take care of their eggs and hatchlings.
  • Birds are the only nonhuman vertebrates with this level of male parental involvement.
  • In polygamous species, where there is more than one mate, one parent does all of the incubating.
  • Many seabirds care for their young for extended periods of time.
  • Great Frigatebird chicks receive intensive parental care for six months or until they fly.
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