Biotechnology uses modern technology to manipulate and use living systems or their component parts. Two common methods used in biotechnology include gene cloning and PCR, both of which can be used to amplify target DNA fragments. Biotechnology has many applications in medicine and agriculture and plays important roles in our society today.
Biotechnology: Use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things in order to produce useful products.
Gene Cloning: Process of isolating and making copies of a gene.
Vector: DNA molecule used to transfer genetic material to a target cell.
Recombinant DNA: DNA that contains genetic material from more than one source.
Genetic Engineering: The use of modern technology to modify an organism’s genome.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): The replication of a DNA segment using a machine.
DNA Primer: Short DNA segment necessary for DNA replication.
Transgenic Crop: Crop that has been genetically modified with new genes that code for traits useful to humans.
Biotechnology methods include gene cloning and polymerase chain reaction.
There are four steps in gene cloning: isolation, ligation, transformation, and selection.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is able to make many copies of a gene or DNA segment. It has three steps: denaturation, annealing and extension.
These three steps are repeated many times to make many copies of the gene/DNA segment.