In order to produce the specific proteins that cells need, cells must regulate DNA transcription so that only certain parts of DNA are transcribed and translated into proteins. Transcription is regulated by regulatory proteins, which control the behavior of RNA polymerase. Regulation in prokaryotic cells involves operons, while regulation in eukaryotic cells involves different types of regulatory elements such as TATA boxes.
Gene Expression: Activating a particular gene to make a protein.
Regulatory Protein: Proteins that regulate DNA transcription.
Activators: Regulatory proteins that promote transcription.
Repressors: Regulatory proteins that prevent transcription.
Regulatory Elements: Regions of DNA where regulatory proteins can bind.
Promoter: Region of a gene where a RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription of the gene.
RNA Polymerase: An enzyme that helps produce RNA during transcription.
Operon: Region of DNA containing genes that code for proteins with a particular function (usually for prokaryotic cells).
Operator: Part of the operon where regulatory proteins bind.
TATA Box: Regulatory element in the promoter of most cells.
Homeobox Genes: Genes that regulate development.
Gene expression is regulated, meaning that specific proteins are made when and where they are needed. This can be done by regulating transcription.
Types of regulatory proteins:
Regulation in prokaryotes involve operons and operators.
Eukaryotic cells are specialized, meaning that they have different functions, so different types of cells use different regulatory elements.