Earth Science

Materials of Earth’s Crust

Chemical Bonding

Study Tip
A gambler lost several thousand dollars at the casino last night, so his dad lent him the same amount of money that he lost, thus equalizing the amount of money gained and lost. This balance is much like chemical bonding, where electrons are distributed from an atom with more electrons to those atoms in need.

Ionic Bond

  • A bond with two oppositely charged ions
  • Typically are attracted to each other due to different charges
  • Ions of different charges often form bonds in order to neutralize their charges
  • Chemical Bonding is the binding of ions to make molecules.
  • An ion with too many electrons will give away electrons to an ion with not enough electrons, thus creating a link between them.
  • Lithium and fluorine can form an ionic compound called lithium fluoride when they transfer electrons.
Study Tip
A gambler lost several thousand dollars at the casino last night, so his dad lent him the same amount of money that he lost, thus equalizing the amount of money gained and lost. This balance is much like chemical bonding, where electrons are distributed from an atom with more electrons to those atoms in need.

Covalent Bond

When an atom shares one or more electrons with another atom

  • Electrons are shared between atoms with covalent bonds
  • Covalent bonds are really common in organic compounds. They require a significant amount of energy to break.
  • Methane is formed when four hydrogen molecules and one carbon molecule covalently bond.

Hydrogen Bond

  • When the positive side of a polar molecule connects to the negative side of another polar molecule
  • These intermolecular forces are weaker than intramolecular forces in covalent and ionic bonds because they don’t connect atoms, but charges between molecules.
Stucture of molecules and compounds
Complex molecules and compounds
are made up of many different
types of bonds.
  • The attraction of water molecules is an example of hydrogen bonding. The water molecule has a polar configuration where the hydrogen end of the molecule is slightly positive and the oxygen end of the molecule is slightly negative. Hydrogen atoms in one water molecule attract oxygen atoms in other water molecules.
Concept Check
  • Make sure to know the three different types of bonds and how they are done
  • What kinds of bonds are made with water?