Earth Science

Principles of Science

Scientific Explanations and Interpretations

Study Tip
The same way a person may cast a shadow over another person when they stand under the sun, planets or celestial bodies that have aligned themselves cast shadows over one another as well.

Facts, Observations, and Opinions

  • Science is an inherently objective topic, as it requires facts to explain the world.
  • Facts are information that are true.
  • Facts come from data and results collected from observations and experiments.
  • Data is factual information that isn’t affected by opinions or bias.
  • When conducting experiments, scientists can use observations and analysis to collect facts and predict what happens in the world.
Study Tip
Think about something you’ve read in a magazine, whether it is an article or a horoscope. Can you identify which are facts, and which are not?
Concept Check
  • What is the difference between facts and data?
  • Keep a lookout for opinions that sound like facts: investigate where the information comes from and whether it is true or not.