Earth Science

Earth Materials

Sedimentary Rocks

Study Tip
Have you ever wondered if there was a “rock cycle”? Rocks can be broken down into small pieces, but these pieces can also be pressed together to form new rocks, called sedimentary rocks.

Sedimentary Rock Composition

  • Sandstone is one of the common types of sedimentary rocks that form from sediments.
  • Sediments may include:
  • Fragments of other rocks worn down into small pieces: sand, silt, or clay.
  • Organic Materials: remains of organisms.
  • Chemical Precipitates: materials left behind after water evaporates from a solution.
Study Tip
Have you ever wondered if there was a “rock cycle”? Rocks can be broken down into small pieces, but these pieces can also be pressed together to form new rocks, called sedimentary rocks.
Study Tip
The same way a person may cast a shadow over another person when they stand under the sun, planets or celestial bodies that have aligned themselves cast shadows over one another as well.

Erosion

  • Rocks at the surface undergo mechanical and chemical weathering.
  • Weathering breaks rock into smaller pieces.
  • Mechanical weathering breaks the rocks apart.
  • Chemical weathering dissolves the less stable minerals.
  • Erosion: Sediments are removed and transported by water, wind, ice, or gravity.
  • Landslides drop large piles of sediment.
  • Glaciers leave large piles of sediments.
  • Wind can only transport sand and smaller particles.

Sedimentary Rock Formation

  • The type of sediment that is deposited will determine the type of sedimentary rock that can form.
  • The environment determines different colors of sedimentary rock.
  • Red rocks where oxygen is present.
  • Darker sediments when environment is oxygen poor.
Erosion
Water erodes the land surface in Alaska’s Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.

Sedimentary Rock Formation

  • The type of sediment that is deposited will determine the type of sedimentary rock that can form.
  • The environment determines different colors of sedimentary rock.
  • Red rocks where oxygen is present.
  • Darker sediments when environment is oxygen poor.
Concept Check
  • What are some materials that can form sedimentary rocks?
  • What are some mediums of erosion?
  • How are sediments moved from place to place?